While these patterns were discovered through exploration of single player levels, and are primarily intended to describe those, many are applicable to multiplayer levels as well.
This pattern collection was originally presented in the paper Design Patterns in FPS Levels by Kenneth Hullett and Jim Whitehead.
Patterns for Positional Advantage
These patterns all result in one entity gaining an advantage in position over another entity. A positional advantage usually affords opportunities to attack other entities without being exposed to counter attack.
Patterns for Large-scale Combat
These patterns provide areas for combat gameplay, with the player either engaging large numbers of enemy NPCs or a single powerful enemy NPC (a boss fight).
Patterns for Alternate Routes
These patterns provide players with choices about how they want to engage the level.
Patterns for Alternate Gameplay
These patterns are used to break up levels with sections of gameplay that differ significantly from the standard gameplay.